Cappadocian region is the place where nature and history come together most beautifully within the world. While geographic events are forming Peribacaları (fairy chimneys), during the historical period, humans had carried the signs of thousand years old civilizations with carving houses and churches within these earth pillars and decorating them with frisks.
During the Roman Emperor, Augustus period, territories of Cappadocian Region as a wide region lying till to the Toros Mountains at south, Aksaray at west, Malatya at east and Eastern Black Sea shores at north within the 17 volume book named 'Geographika' of Strabon, one of the Antic Period writers. Today's Cappadocian Region is the area covered by Nevşehir, Aksaray, Niğde, Kayseri, and Kırşehir cities. More limited area, rocky Cappadocian Region is composed of Üçhisar, Göreme, Avanos, Ürgüp, Derinkuyu, Kaymaklı, Ihlara and environment.
Traditional Cappadocian houses and dovecotes carved into stones are showing the uniqueness of the region. These houses are constructed on the feet of the mountain via rocks or cut stones. Rock, which is the only construction material of the region, as it is very soft after quarry due to the structure of the region, can be easily processed but after contact with air it hardens and turns into a very strong construction material. Due to being plentiful and easy to process of the used material, regional unique masonry is developed and turned into an architectural tradition. Materials of neither courtyard nor house doors is wood. Upper parts of the doors built with arches are decorated with stylized ivy or rosette motifs.
Dovecotes within the region are small structures constructed within 18th century and end of 19th century. Some of the dovecotes, which are important for showing Islamic picture art are constructed as monastery or church. Surfaces of dovecotes are decorated with rich inscriptions and adornments by regional artists.
WHERE TO VISIT?
The province of Nevşehir is one of the major cities of Cappadoccia Region and displays a beautiful combination of nature and history. The geographic movements had formed the fairy chimneys and during the historical development process, mankind had settled and inhabited these natural wonders, fairy chimneys and carved houses and churches inside these formations and adorned these settlements with frescos, carrying the traces of the thousands of years of their civilizations.
Districts: Nevşehir (center), Acıgöl, Avanos, Derinkuyu, Gülşehir, Hacıbektaş, Kozaklı, Ürgüp.
Aksaray is located at middle Anatolia region, it was an important trade centre on the ancient silk road, and nowadays it is still placed on intersection point of main roads lies between east to west and north to south. Historical background of city can be traced to 8000 BC. Years and there are cultural creations those related to various civilisations. Aksaray that sited as the beginning gate of Capadocia, offers various and interesting vacation facilities to its visitors with apart from cultural values and also natural riches.
Districts: Ağaçören, Güzelyurt, Gülağaç, Eskil,
Kayseri has been one of the most important trade centres of Anatolia over history. Located right in the centre of the country, it has the feel of a modern, busy city but also has a strong traditional and religious atmosphere. The setting is spectacular, with the mountains of Erciyes Dagi and Kara Dagi in the background, a snow-capped volcano and green fields, and the nearby Sultansazligi bird sanctuary. The city is also well known for its textile and carpet industry, and has impressive monuments that reflect its history. Kayseri has always been a popular option as a base to explore Cappadocia.
Kırşehir city, which is a scene for various civilizations for thousands of years is not only drawing attention with various historical pieces of art, underground cities, but also with its rich thermal sources, Seyfe Lake (Bird Paradise) like natural beauties.
Districts: Kırşehir (center), Akçakent, Akpınar, Boztepe, Çiçekdağı, Kaman, Mucur.
Ürgüp, 20 km east of Nevsehir, is one of the most important centres of the Cappadocia region. Like Goreme, it had numerous names in the course of its history, and its cave dwellings scattered around the village make it a very tourist-friendly destination. It has many hotels and guest-houses, good entertainment, old Greek houses from before the population exchange of 1923, and an atmosphere which has remained attached to its tradition despite a modernising tourist industry. It is a good base to explore the nearby Goreme Valley.
Climate: From season to season, the climate is quite extreme. Summers are hot and dry, with warm nights. Winters are cold and it can even snow, while spring and autumn are mild.
History: With a geological structure of volcanic formations, Urgup was established within the region which had been shaped into fantastic forms known as Fairy Chimneys, through erosions of water and wind. The were formed as floodwater poured down the sides of the valleys, combined with strong winds which tore away the softer volcanic rocks, resulting in this unique landscape. It is an important centre in Cappadocia, and has been known by many names: Osian (Assiana), Hagios Prokopios (Byzantine), Bashisar (Seljuk), Burgat Kaalesi (Ottoman) and finally Urgup, from shortly after the founding of the Turkish Republic.
The old city of Avanos overlooks the longest river the Turkey, the Kızılırmak (Red River), which also separates it from the rest of Cappadocia. Located 18 km north of Nevsehir, the ancient name of this city used to be Venessa. The most famous historical feature of Avanos, which is still relevant and very visible today, is its production of earthenware pottery. The ceramic trade in this district and its countless pottery factories date right back to the Hittites, and the ceramic clay from the red silt of the Kızılırmak has always been used. It is a popular destination because of its attractive old town with cobbled streets, and superb views over the river.
Climate: Summers are hot and dry, while winters are cold and wet.
Göreme, which hide among fairy chimneys, is the heart of Cappadocia. First period settlement within the region reaches to Roman period from Christianity. Ortahane, Durmus Kadir, Yusuf Koc and Bezirhane churches in Göreme, houses and shafts engraved from rocks till to Uzundere, Bağıldere and Zemi Valley carries the mystical side of history today.